Раздел 1. Аудирование
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.
1. It is important to teach pupils important elements of storytelling.
2. The compelling tone and atmosphere are important.
3. It is significant that students make their own choice.
4. Creative writing makes students nervous and bored.
5. Analyzing the development of characters improves writing.
6. The use of active verbs make stories alive.
7. These tasks are difficult for both students and teachers.
Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.
A. Linda and Frank are going to the movies.
B. Mel Gibson’s character fights in the War of Independence.
C. Frank thinks the plot benefits from love stories.
D. Gibson’s character falls in love with a British girl.
E. Frank finds the film unrealistic in many ways.
F. Frank is sure costumes will be the main attraction for Linda in the film.
G. Linda plans to see the film that very night.
David has some work experience as ...
1. a military pilot.
2. a pilot of regional airlines.
3. a British Airlines representative.
David’s present duties include ...
1. helping his senior colleagues with their luggage and uniform.
2. paging important information to his senior colleagues.
3. replacing his senior colleagues when they are ill.
What is annoying to David in his current job?
1. The airline's plans can go wrong.
2. It takes him too long to get to the airport.
3. Being paged interrupts his personal life.
Describing some difficulties in his current job, David says that ...
1. it is a normal part of a reserve pilot's career.
2. other pilots have more serious problems.
3. he expects his job to become more difficult in the future.
What is the biggest disadvantage of David's current job?
1. Lack of free time.
2. Irregular working hours.
3. Low salary.
Speaking about his flat-mates. David says that ...
1. they are not very friendly to him.
2. they always argue about who will cook the meals.
3. he doesn't have the opportunity to see them very often.
What kind of training will David need in the future?
1. Training in flying A320.
2. Training for keeping up with changes.
3. Training in the company’s operations.
Раздел 2. Чтение
1. Comparing insects
2. Some special features
3. Some dragonflies migrate
4. Excellent vision
5. Keeping them warm or cool
6. Masters of flight
7. Ancient insects
8. Risks of extinction
A. Long before the dinosaurs walked the Earth, dragonflies took to the air. If we could transport ourselves back 250 million years, we would immediately recognize the familiar sight of dragonflies flying in pursuit of prey. Ancient dragonflies may have been considerably larger than those we see today. A fossilized impression of a dragonfly wing, found in a coal mine in England, is the oldest known dragonfly specimen. This dragonfly lived 320 million years ago and had a wingspan of 8 inches.
B. Relative to other insects, dragonfly vision is extraordinarily good. The head consists almost entirely of two huge compound eyes, which gives the dragonfly nearly 360° vision. Each compound eye contains as many as 30,000 lenses, or ommatidia. A dragonfly uses about 80% of its brain to process all this visual information. They can see a wider spectrum of colours than humans. This remarkable vision helps them to detect the movement of other insects and avoid collisions in flight.
C. Dragonflies can move each of their four wings independently. In addition to flapping each wing up and down, they can rotate their wings forward and back on”an axis. This flexibility enables them to put on an aerial show like no other insect. Dragonflies can move straight up or down, fly backwards, stop and hover, and make hairpin turns, at full speed or in slow motion. A dragonfly can fly forward at a speed of 100 body lengths per second, or up to 30 miles per hour.
D. A number of dragonfly species are known to migrate. As with other organisms that migrate, dragonflies relocate to follow or find needed resources, or in response to environmental changes like cold weather. The globe skimmer is one of several species known to develop in temporary freshwater pools. Forced to follow the rains that replenish their breeding sites, the globe skimmer set a new insect world record when a biologist documented its 11,000 mile trip between India and Africa.
E. Fifty years ago there were twice as many ponds in Britain as there are today. The draining of agricultural land, "filling in and pollution have all contributed to the disappearance of most countryside ponds. Canals have also suffered from pollution, especially by chemicals used on farmland draining into water. The loss of suitable fresh water habitats has affected dragonflies enormously and they are becoming increasingly rare. Some of dragonflies which can be found living only in the Norfolk Broads, is on the list of British endangered species of insects.
F. A dragonfly has two large compound eyes which take up most of its head. Dragonflies have long, delicate, membranous wings which are transparent and some have light yellow colouring near the tips. Their bodies are long and slender and they have short antennae. Dragonflies are very colourful. Some are red like the Comet Darner and yellow like the Emerald Darner. They can beat each pairs of wings together or separately and their rear wings can be out of phase with the front wings. Their wing beat is around 50-90 beats per second.
G. Dragonflies and butterflies possess two pair of wings. The butterfly’s wings are made up of two large pairs of wings each possessing a forewing and a hindwing. Butterflies can’t fly if the temperature of their body falls below 8"5 degrees and therefore need to sun themselves in order to warm up. Butterflies also have a pair of antennae with small receptors attached for smelling. Dragonflies have two pairs of wings that are transparent, rigid, straight, and have few veins. Unlike butterflies, dragonflies are adept at flying.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.
1. the realization of everyone’s right to education
2. one of its principal activities to achieve this aim
3. make education systems more effective
4. to respond to contemporary global challenges
5. stimulating teachers to work more effectively
6. to higher education, including vocational education
7. improving quality, and ensuring that education
Since its creation in 1945, UNESCO’s mission has been to contribute to the building of peace, poverty eradication, lasting development and intercultural dialogue. Education is A ______ . The Organization is committed to a holistic and humanistic vision оf quality education worldwide, В ______ and the belief that education plays a fundamental role in human, social and economic development.
UNESCO's educational objectives are to support the achievement of education for All (EFA), to provide global and regional leadership in education; to strengthen education systems worldwide from early childhood to the adult years; C ______ through education.
UNESCO’s work encompasses educational development from pre-school through D ______, non-formal education and literacy.
The Organization focuses on increasing access, E ______ develops knowledge and skills in areas such as sustainable development, human rights and gender equality. UNESCO works with governments and a wide range of partners to F ______ through policy change. It coordinates the Education for All movement, tracks education trends and raises the profile of educational needs on global development agendas.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
The Maya civilization was one of the most advanced cultures in Mesoamerica, and their empire’s incredible reign (and mysterious collapse) is a source of fascination for all types of scholars. The culture is well-known for its long-count calendar, inscribed on a large stone, as well as its incredible architecture, and for having the first fully developed written language in the Americas. This is known due to the codices, or folding books, which have been found in various historical sites and are considered some of the era’s most important artifacts.
While many of these volumes were destroyed in the years during and after the Spanish conquest, three of the codices have been established as authentic beyond doubt. They are named after the cities in which they eventually came to reside: the Dresden, Madrid, and Paris codices. Other Maya books are extremely rare due to disintegration; many excavations of archaeological sites have unearthed lumps of plaster which are the remains of tomes where all organic matter has decomposed.
The Dresden Codex is one of the more well-known books, found in Chichen Itza. The last is believed to be the central city of the Maya civilization. The Dresden Codex is the oldest book written in the Western Hemisphere that’s ever been found, and consists of 39 double-sided sheets of amate paper. One of the most interest about the book is that it was written by different authors in a variety of colors, styles, and glyphs. The volume has an extraordinarily accurate astronomical table, including a chart that predicts the movement Venus in the sky. It's believed that the Maya rulers would organise their wars to occur only when the planet had risen. We still can't explain what made it possible for the Maya people to make such accurate astronomical observations without special equipment, so there are constant talks about possible contacts of Maya with other interspace civilizations.
The Madrid Codex is more varied than the Dresden, and is thought to have been written by only one person after the Spanish had already arrived in Mesoamerica. It may have been sent back to Spain by Herman Cortes himself, and it now resides in the Museo de America in Madrid. The source city for this book is believed to be Tayasal, which was conquered by conquistadors in 1697.
The Paris Codex was qcquired by France in 1832, and promptly disappeared for several years shortly after a few reproduction drawings had been made. It was rediscovered in 1859 in a basket of papers in the National Library, and is in poor condition as a result. The book contains prophecies relating of Maya long-count calendar as well as their zodiac. Many people still believe in the verity of Maya prophecies, or at least in our ability to decipher them.
While these three are the only authenticated Maya codices, there are a number of others which are believed to be forgeries; the rarity of this type of artifact naturally causes a spike in the price for a new one. The Grolier Codex surfaced in the 1970s, and consists of 11 pages, which were discovered in a cave. It is an extremely convincing artifact, but scholars are in serious disagreement over its legitimacy. While the paper is ancient enough, the pictures on it have many inconsistencies and errors, and no consensus has yet been reached.
Which of the following is, according to the author, NOT what the Maya civilization is famous for?
2. Outstanding constructions.
3. Military victories.
4. Time-planning charts.
The Maya codices became so important for modem scholars because they
1. were found in different places.
2. are direct evidence of an ancient culture.
3. disclose ancient mysteries.
4. can still function as a calendar.
The Codices are named after several European cities because
1. they were found there.
2. they are kept there.
3. these cities are also very old.
4. these cities are the best research centres.
According to the author, in Maya culture the planet Venus movement was used to show ...
1. when to change the ruler.
2. the accuracy of astronomical tables.
3. how to organize their civilization.
4. when to start a military action.
It can be implied that the Madrid Codex was ...
1. a war trophy.
2. bought for the museum.
3. the reason of an ancient conflict.
4. discovered by chance.
The Paris Codex is in the poorest condition because it was ...
1. not kept in a library.
2. poorly copied.
3. neglected for a period of time.
4. discovered too late.
The scholars are in doubt about the authenticity of the Grolier Codex because of ...
1. its controversial content.
2. the qualities of its paper.
3. the text style.
4. its size.
Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика
Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные жирными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Перенесите полученный ответ в соответствующее поле справа. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19 — 25. Ответ пишите без пробелов и иных знаков.
SURROUND Two weeks of warm weather in the high Arctic have caused a lake to begin forming. To be clear, the water the pole is not sea water ______ from the ocean.
MELT It is ______ ice water resting on a layer of ice below. “It’s a shallow lake. It's a cold lake. But it is, actually, a lake,” writes William Wolfe of Canada.com.
BAD That lake started to form on July 13 during a month of abnormally warm weather - temperatures were 1-3 degrees Celsius higher than average in the Arctic Ocean this month. In addition, the weather is likely to get ______ over the coming week. An Arctic cyclone will bring strong winds and rain.
GO According to the National Meteorology Institute, 87 towns in all three of Brazil’s southern states saw snow and freezing rain last week. The temperature ______ below zero.
ONE In some towns temperature as low as minus 7 degrees Celsius was registered. It was the ______ time that it snowed in Florianopolis, and Curitiba, the capital of the state of Parana reported snow after 38 years.
FALLSnow is rare in Brazil. Last year it ______ out only in a handful of towns in the mountainous areas.
DECLARE This year because of heavy snowfalls and low temperature a state of emergency ________ in several towns of the country.
Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные жирными буквам в конце строк 26—31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните соответствующее поле справа полученными словами. Каждое поле соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.
AGGRESSIONDolphins are known for their gentle personality. But the celebrity dolphin, ‘Dusty’, one can see in Doolin Harbour, County Clare, Ireland is different. This female dolphin is well-known for her_______ behaviour.
SWIM One day she was bathing next to a wall and stone steps of the harbour, with two ______ nearby.
IRRITATESShe soon turned sinister as she began to bash her tail on the surface of the water in a sign of anger and _______ causing enormous splashes.
SUDDEN________ the dolphin surged through the water and hit a woman, leaving her screaming in pain.
FORTUNATEThe _______ woman began shouting for help. She was dragged onto the steps by a bystander, but Dusty soon came back and menacingly raised her head out of the water before swimming away.
FRIEND Dusty was first spotted in the waters as far back as 2000. At times she can seem ______ and welcoming of the attention, but she can quickly turn nasty. Lifeguards in the area are now putting out red flags whenever Dusty is spotted in the area and have asked tourists not to swim with the dolphin.
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32 — 38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32 — 38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
I don’t believe anyone could describe me as a snob. However, I do believe that the saying “There’s a place for everything, and everything has its place” 32 ______ equally well to human beings.
I was born in Yorkshire in Victorian times and I can safely 33 ______ that during this period my family played a considerable role. My father, Sir Raymond Hardcastle, was not only an inventor and industrialist of great imagination and skill, but he also built up one of the nation's most successful companies. At the same time he always 34 ______ his workers as if they were all part of the family.
Indeed it was this example that he 35 ______ , whenever he dealt with those less fortunate than himself that has been the benchmark by which I have attempted to conduct my own life.
I have no brothers and just one elder sister, Amy. 36 ______ there were only a couple of years between us, I cannot pretend that we were even particularly close, perhaps because I was an outgoing child, while she was shy and reserved. Her only interests in life were gardening, crochet work and the occasional visit to Scarborough festival. She never 37 ______ an attempt to get out of the family circle.
Gerald and I first met when I had been a houseguest at Lord Fanshaw's country home in Norfolk. As it turned 38 ______ we had much in common. We were married in July 1895 and our son Guy was born a year later. My father simply doted on Guy and left everything to him.
Раздел 4. Письмо
Для ответов на задания 39, 40 используйте Бланк ответов № 2. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в Бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. При заполнении Бланка ответов № 2 вы указываете сначала номер задания 39, 40, а потом пишете свой ответ.
Раздел 5. Говорение
Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.
Science is what we do to find out about the natural world. It is the total of physics, chemistry, biology, geology and astronomy. Science makes use of mathematics, and it makes observations and experiments. People who study and research science and try to find out everything about it are called scientists. Scientists study things by looking at them very carefully, by measuring them, and by doing experiments and tests. Scientists try to explain why things act the way they do, and predict what will happen.
Science is a way to get knowledge by discarding what is not true.Scientists must be very careful to make explanations that fit well with what they observe and measure. They compete to provide better explanations. An explanation might be interesting or pleasing, but if it does not agree with what other scientists really see and measure, they will try to find a better explanation.
Study the advertisement.
Join our Extreme Sports Club!
In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:
- number of training sessions a week
- duration of training sessions
- if special clothes are necessary
- safety measures
- minimum age
You have 20 seconds to ask each questions.
Imagine that these are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to present to you friend.
You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes. In your talk remember to speak about:
- where and when the photo was taken
- what/who is in the photo
- what is happening
- why you keep the photo
- why you decided to show the picture to your friend
You have to talk continuously, starting with: “I’ve chosen photo number ...” .
Study the two photographs. In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:
- give a brief description of the photos (action, location)
- say what the pictures have in common
- say in what way the pictures are different
- say which of the sports presented in the pictures you'd prefer
- explain why
You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12-15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.
редактор Екатерина Высоцкая
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