Раздел 1. Аудирование
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.
1. Meal planning may be helpful.
2. Free events and entertainment are a way to save money.
3. You can save your money using these means of transport.
4. It is the best way to save on your smartphone.
5. Used books can help you to cut expenses.
6. Giving up costly dependence is a way to rise savings.
7. Growing a garden reduces your costs.
Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.
A. Nowadays schools are cutting art programs and music programs.
B. Jane thinks that art education is not very important.
C. Art and music clubs are organized in each school.
D. Students should have the opportunity to attend art classes full year.
E. Students cannot take all of those art classes because they don’t have time.
F. Nowadays elementary school pupils have short breaks at school.
G. All schools have P.E. after a lunch break.
What do we learn about Anne at the beginning of the interview?
1) She won an award as the best chef.
2) She is from a royal dynasty.
3) She joined the young generation of chefs.
Which of the following is TRUE about Anne’s childhood?
1) Her father cooked beetroot salads and roast chickens.
2) Her grandfather cooked mushrooms.
3) She picked mushrooms and strawberries in the countryside.
When was the moment when all Anne’s family spent together?
1) At breakfast.
2) At dinner.
3) At weekend.
Why did Anne have to learn cooking by herself?
1) Because her father died suddenly.
2) Because she didn’t want to get formal training in cooking.
3) Because her family wanted her to join their business.
Which of the following is NOT given as a recommendation for young female chefs?
1) Anne advises to believe in themselves.
2) Anne advises to follow their dreams.
3) Anna advises to memorize recipes.
What is the pansoti like?
1) It is pasta with unique flavour, colour and shape.
2) It is a dish Anne has created for vegetarians.
3) It is a restaurant Anne has opened in France.
What does Anne want to change in the nation’s food habits?
1) It is important to encourage people to eat in restaurants.
2) It is important to begin national food habits at school.
3) It is important to consume a lot of vegetables.
Раздел 2. Чтение
1. Having an exit strategy
2. Focus less on gifts and presents
3. Beware of taking on too much
4. Learn to delegate tasks
5. Have realistic expectations
6. Don’t skip the exercise
7. Set a budget and stick to it
8. Be open to change
A. Some people are under the impression that the holidays are a time to relax and to take a step back from the worries of day-to-day life. Apparently those with this opinion have never had to host a dinner, plan a toy drive or shop for picky relatives. When you find yourself, for example, offering to cook the honey-baked ham at your house, be sure to know your limitations, and beware of taking on any unnecessary stress. This isn’t the time to be an overachiever.
B. Sometimes it is impossible to skip the holiday invitations that will place you in the same room with people that you could definitely wait another year to see. However, don’t deprive yourself of the joy of having a good meal with loved ones or watching children tear into their perfectly wrapped gifts with a frenzy. Instead, have a plan in mind. Sometimes there’s nothing more freeing than the possibility of an escape plan!
C. Holiday retail is characterized by its overwhelming power. It makes people fill up the shopping cart quickly and they often notice that their shopping cart is full but they haven’t bought the half of gifts. Of course, it creates months of stress when the credit bills start rolling in. Trying to keep to a budget can be difficult, especially when prices never seem to go down. But creating a list with gift ideas, including estimated pricing, can be very useful.
D. Some people are already on a strict training, when holidays come. They regularly practice jogging or swim in the swimming pool. At the same time, a lot of them use the holidays as an excuse to turn back into a couch potato. People can definitely take a step back, because they often skip exercise on Christmas Eve or other days. But they should remember to keep active.
E. Things may not always go according to plan, especially during the holidays. It is the time when schedules change and a lot of work may pile up during time off. The best way to face these difficulties is with an open mind, ready to do the best. Dinner may be held at a different time this year, or your flight might be unexpectedly rescheduled. But don’t see these incidents as negative. Enjoy the holiday!
F. With kids in the house it’s easy to fill the space completely under the Christmas tree with wrapped boxes and ribbon and bows, big and small. It’s a happy sight — for kids, and for parents. It invites the wonder into the kids’ lives. But honestly, it doesn’t take much to do that if we’re mindful and engaged. It is necessary to allow the kids to receive the gifts they are given, not just unwrap with curiosity and move on to the next. In this way, they will learn appreciation and gratitude.
G. Coping with holiday stress need not be difficult. We all long to have the ideal holiday gathering: a lovely party with your family and friends, a magnificent dinner, and wonderful gifts perfectly wrapped under a spectacular tree. Unfortunately, perfection is seldom easy, especially at Christmas! There is no perfect gift, or tree, or family! There will be a few disadvantages... burnt cookies, toys without batteries and differences in opinions. Accept that things are what they are and try focusing on pleasant things instead.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.
1. between the person and his or her concept of identity
2. as a moment in the life of the infant
3. between their bodies and their images
4. until the age of about 15 to 18 months
5. that it had become so abstract
6. to recognize their reflection in a mirror
7. as it marks a decisive turning point
Mirror stage refers to the point in time when infants and toddlers start recognizing their reflections in the mirror. Children are fascinated with images of themselves and others in mirrors from about that age. At the same time, they do not begin to recognize that the images in the mirror are reflections of their own bodies A _____________ In psychology, there has been a debate about the mirror stage’s importance in identity formation.
‘In 1936, psychologist Jacques Lacan proposed that the mirror stage was part of an infant's development from 6 to 18 months. By the early 1950s, Lacan’s concept of the mirror stage had changed slightly. He no longer considered the mirror stage В______________, but as representing a permanent structure of identity. Lacan felt that understanding and processing one’s reflection was a key part in the development of identity.
‘In 1953, Lacan writes that the mirror stage has historical value C________________________________in the mental development of the child. Moreover, it represents an essential connection D_______________________________.
‘Lacan’s concept of the mirror stage was strongly inspired by earlier work by psychologist Henri Wallon. Wallon noted that by the age of about six months, human infants and chimpanzees both seem E _____________________. While chimpanzees rapidly lose interest in the discovery, human intants typically become very interested and devote much time and effort to exploring the connections F_______________________.
Many other psychologists disagreed witlT the^ notion that recognizing and processing one’s reflection in the mirror was a key component in identity development. In 1988, Raymond Tallis wrote a paper claiming that the theory was inaccurate because it would mean that people who were blind from birth would lack selfhood and be unable to contribute to society.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
Tom Belt, a native of Oklahoma, didn’t encounter the English language until he began kindergarten. In his home, conversations took place in Cherokee. Belt grew up riding horses, and after college bounced around the country doing the rodeo circuit.
Eventually, he wound up in North Carolina in pursuit of a woman he met at school 20 years earlier. “All those years ago, she said the thing that attracted her to me was that I was the youngest Cherokee she’d ever met who could speak Cherokee,” he says. “I bought a roundtrip ticket to visit her, but I never used the other end of the ticket.”
The couple married. Yet his wife — also Cherokee — did not speak the language. He soon realized that he was a minority among his own people. At that time, just 400 or so Cherokee speakers were left in the Eastern Band, the tribe located in the Cherokee’s historic homeland and the one that his wife belongs to. Children were no longer learning the language either. “I began to realize the urgency of the situation,” Belt says. So he decided to do something about it.
Cherokee is far from the only minority language threatened with demise. Over the past century alone, around 400 languages — about one every three months — have gone extinct, and most linguists estimate that 50% of the world’s remaining 6,800 languages will be gone by the end of this century. Today, the top ten languages in the world claim around half of the world’s population. Can language diversity be preserved, or are we on a path to becoming a monolingual species?
Since there are so many imperilled languages, it’s impossible to label just one as the rarest or most endangered, but at least 100 around the world have only a handful of speakers — from Ainu in Japan to Yagan in Chile. It can be difficult to find these people too. There are some famous cases — Marie Smith Jones passed away in Alaska in 2008, taking the Eyak language with her — but usually they are older individuals (often in failing health) who don’t advertise their language skills. “The smaller the number of speakers, the harder it is to get an accurate headcount,” says David Harrison, chair of the linguistics department at Swarthmore College, and co-founder of the non-profit Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages.
Languages usually reach the point of crisis after being displaced by a socially, politically and economically dominant one, as linguists put it. Sometimes, especially in immigrant communities, parents do not decide to teach their children their heritage language, perceiving it as a potential hindrance to their success in life.
There are also a few examples of languages being revived even after actually going extinct. By the 1960s, the last fluent Miami language speakers living in the American Midwest passed away. Thanks largely to the efforts of one interested member of the Miami Nation tribe, however, the language is now taught at Miami University in Ohio. To an extent, technology can help these efforts. Many speakers are using technology to do really interesting things that were not imaginable a generation back. For example, a version of Windows 8 is available in Cherokee, and a Cherokee app allows speakers to text in the language’s 85 letters. A multitude of sites devoted to single languages or languages of a specific region unite speakers and provide multimedia teaching tools, too.
When did Belt begin learning English?
1) Before he went to kindergarten.
2) After he went to kindergarten.
3) When he went to North Carolina.
4) When he went to college.
Which of the following attracted the woman he met at school?
1) His ability to speak English.
2) His ability to ride horses.
3) His ability to speak Cherokee.
4) His ability to do the rodeo circuit.
What does the phrase “the urgency of the situation” mean?
1) People of the tribe left their native land.
2) People of the tribe did not speak their language.
3) People of the tribe had arguments.
4) People of the tribe did not have teachers for their children.
What do linguists estimate?
1) 3000 languages will disappear by the end of this century.
2) 2400 languages will disappear by the end of this century.
3) 3400 languages will disappear by the end of this century.
4) 2800 languages will disappear by the end of this century.
What problem does David Harrison mention?
1) It is hard to find places where the rarest languages are spoken.
2) It is hard to count the exact number of people who speak disappearing languages.
3) The accurate number of rare languages is difficult to count.
4) The number of people who speak the most endangered languages is reducing.
The phrase “heritage language” in “Sometimes, especially in immigrant communities, parents will decide not to teach their children...” (paragraph 7) is closest to meaning
1) the native language.
2) the foreign language.
3) the original language.
4) the unique language.
What idea is NOT expressed in the last paragraph?
1) It is possible to revive endangered languages.
2) It is impossible to revive endangered languages.
3) It is necessary to create special apps to revive endangered languages.
4) It is necessary to teach endangered languages in universities.
Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика
Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные жирными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Перенесите полученный ответ в соответствующее поле справа. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19 — 25. Ответ пишите без пробелов и иных знаков.
WRITEAs a boy in Illinois, Ray Bradbury had a passion for adventure stories, secret code rings, and comic strips. He started____________ fiction to create his own imaginary worlds.
HEWhile some of Bradbury’s most famous stories are science fiction, he didn’t think of as a science fiction writer. Instead, he thought that he should write _______ what he saw, just “through a different lens.”
KNOWWhen Bradbury wrote “All Summer in a Day” in 1954, very little_____________ about Venus.
LATEThe mysterious planet lay hidden beneath a very heavy layer of clouds. Scientists learned a few years __________that this dense cloud cover did not result in constant rain, as occured in Bradbury’s story.
BRIGHTAs one of the ___________ objects in the sky, Venus has gained an entrenched position in human culture.
BEGINObservations of the planet Venus include those in antiquity, telescopic observations, and from visiting spacecraft. Exploration of Venus ____________with a ‘flyby’ spacecraft from the Soviet Union in 1961 and another from the United States in 1962.
PROVIDESince then, orbiting spacecraft and robotic equipment ____________ pictures and information about conditions on Venus.
Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные жирными буквам в конце строк 26—31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните соответствующее поле справа полученными словами. Каждое поле соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.
SECUREMost people are______________, and with good reason. Not me.
GENERALThis is probably because I’ve had to think about who I am and who I’m not, which is something your average person___________________doesn’t have to do. Also, it helps that I am very clever, if challenged in other ways.
COMFORTChallenged in this context means that I am weird, strange and odd, or however you want to put it. The descriptions of myself fit into a spectrum that stretches from ‘highly gifted’ at one end to‘strange’ at the other, both of which I am ________________with.
IGNOREOne comes from understanding and respect, while the other comes from_________________and fear.
HURTSome psychologists try to explain the thinking behind both terms. Well, they explain the thinking behind the latter term, the offensive, deliberately____________________term;
JUDGEthe thinking behind the former, respectful ________________seemed perfectly clear and valid to me.
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32 — 38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32 — 38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
In the summer of 1778, Captain James Cook, the famous British explorer, tried to find a Western entrance to the Northwest Passage. This passage, he hoped, would be a 32______________between the Far East and the West. It could open up trade between continents.
Boating life was a bit different then, though. Cook’s boat was covered in ice, and his shipmates constantly tried to avoid slipping and falling. They 33_______________about having to eat walrus meat.
The British expedition was halted north of the Bering Strait. The ship hit “ice which seemed to be 10 or 12 feet 34_______________at least,” according to the captain’s journal. Cook’s ships followed the ice 35_______________all the way to Siberia, in Russia. Their search for the Northwest Passage came up empty.
More than two centuries later, scientists are studying records kept by Cook and his 36_______________. They are finding details about global warming. It has changed the Arctic in a way Cook could never have imagined.
Many people believed that oceans couldn’t freeze. Cook proved them wrong. Many people thought that sea ice 37______________in rivers. He proved that wrong, too.
Cook also described different types of sea ice. He saw the thick ice walls and ridges in the Arctic. He guessed that it 38_______________years for the ice to build up.
Раздел 4. Письмо
Для ответов на задания 39, 40 используйте Бланк ответов № 2. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в Бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. При заполнении Бланка ответов № 2 вы указываете сначала номер задания 39, 40, а потом пишете свой ответ.
Раздел 5. Говорение
Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.
America experienced a ‘gold rush’ in the middle of the nineteenth century. Although gold has been found in all fifty states, the best places to search are the states in the western third of the country. Because the metal gets washed out of the mountains by water, a gold seeker looks for a stream. A smaller creek is usually the best place to find gold. A stream that fills with rain water from time to time will have seen a good deal of erosion. It is in these types of streams that gold travels most easily. With much luck, gold can be found in nugget form, but most often it appears as small flakes. Gold is very heavy and sinks. A miner might look for a little waterfall in the stream. Gold may be below it. Also, gold gets trapped deep down along the banks where the creek bends. It might also be found immediately downstream of a boulder or rock formation in the stream.
Study the advertisement.
You are considering spending part of your holidays in the sport camp and now you are calling to find out more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:
1) the age of holiday-makers
2) sport equipment offered
3) distance to the nearest hypermarket
4) sport tuition
5) if any discoteques organised
You have 20 seconds to ask each questions.
These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.
You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:
— where and when the photo was taken
— what/who is in the photo
— what is happening
— why you keep the photo in your album
— why you decided to show the picture to your friend
You have to talk continuously, starting with: “I’ve chosen photo number …”
Study the two photographs.
In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:
— give a brief description of the photos (action, location)
— say what the pictures have in common
— say in what way the pictures are different
— say which of the churches presented in the pictures you’d like more
— explain why
You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12—15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.
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