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# Вариант 22

### Раздел 1. Аудирование

1
1

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

1. Learning to embrace being alone makes you happier.

2. Reading books helps you to understand yourself.

3. Singing or dancing helps to develop your artistic abilities.

4. Consider learning in areas you’ve never ventured before.

5. Over-analyzing things independent of you can be harmful.

6. Fiction, poetry and plays widen your knowledge.

7. Don’t limit your online activities to just games.

2
2

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

A. Nick is keen on track and field athletics.

B. Nick sets ambitious but realistic goals for himself.

C. If you set an example of good sportsmanship, you’ll receive the same respect in turn when you win.

D. Nick finds it difficult to stock up with patience.

E. Nick is not prone to accept criticism.

F. Thinking becomes more limited if Nick allows himself to become emotional against criticism.

G. Team sports can have some skills practiced in solitude.

В заданиях 3—9 обведите цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

3
3

What is the first advice Simon shares?

1) Install a home security system.

2) Purchase a sign from a security company.

3) Install motion sensors.

4
4

What is the main idea about the doors?

1) Good locks are useless if your door is easily broken.

2) Strong entry doors should be installed.

3) If you are renting your home pay attention to the locks.

5
5

How should people keep valuable belongings?

1) Install strong locks.

2) Purchase a safe.

3) Use a deposit box in the bank.

6
6

1) to have all the keys by yourself.

2) to have an extra key inside the house.

3) put away the hidden key.

7
7

Speaking about neighbours, it is better to ...

2) to remind them that you are on holidays.

8
8

What is true about frightening off the burglar?

1) Installing programmable light switches.

2) Installing alarm system.

3) Leaving window coverings the same.

9
9

Which of the following cannot be considered to be of high importance?

1) Do not speak to strangers.

### Раздел 2. Чтение

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10
Установите соответствие тем 1 — 8 текстам A — G. Занесите свои ответы в соответствующее поле справа. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.

1. Money string changes source

2. What in a colour

3. Weight of money

4. Out-of-use but valuable notes

5. Size matters

6. How we got that mark

7. Before money comes in

8. Free to choose from

A. In early societies people developed barter as a form of protomoney, when they used the things that everyone agreed to accept in trade. Various items have been used by different societies at different times. Thus, for example, Aztecs used cacao beans, Norwegians used butter, the early U.S. colonists used tobacco leaves, and Roman soldiers were paid a salary of salt. On the island of Nauru, the islanders even used rats for this purpose.

B. The first coins were made in the Kingdom of Lydia, located on the territory of Turkey in the 7th century B.C. The Lydians used weighed lumps of metal and stamped them with pictures to confirm their weight (the shape of the coins was unimportant). The process of stamping was called ‘minting’. In fact, the stamp on the coin was a seal that identified the person who had guaranteed the weight of that coin.

C. The well-known dollar sign has various explanations. Perhaps one of the most widely accepted is that it was the result of the evolution of the Mexican or Spanish ‘Ps’ which was used for pesos. This theory explains that the ‘S’ gradually came to be written over the ‘P’, developing a close equivalent to the American dollar *$’ mark. It was widely used even before the adoption of the United States dollar in 1785. D. The largest banknote ever issued by the Bank of England was the £1,000,000 note. Designed for use by the UK government only, the notes were canceled after just a few months, allowing very few to escape into private hands. However, just because the notes are out of service nowadays it doesn’t mean that they are valueless. In 2008, one of two known surviving notes was sold at auction for almost$120,000.

E. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the world’s largest banknote is the 100,000-peso note, which is of the size of a standard sheet of paper. It was created by the government of the Philippines in 1998 to celebrate a century of independence from Spanish rule. The note was offered only to collectors, who could purchase one of the limited-edition notes for 180,000 pesos, or about \$3,700.

F. American Indians used to have strings of clamshells, which they called wampum and used as money. The process to make wampum was very labor intensive, which increased their value among the European traders. However, the Dutch colonists began to manufacture wampum themselves and eventually became the primary source of wampum, thereby destroying the system which had functioned for centuries.

G. Why are U.S. notes green? No one is really sure. However, in 1929, when the Bureau of Printing and Engraving began making smaller size currency, green continued to be used because its pigment was readily available in large quantities. Green is also relatively high in its resistance to chemical and physical changes, and it has been psychologically identified with the strong and stable credit of the government.

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11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.

1. by each region’s polar front jet stream

2. temperatures rose to just above freezing

3. waves develop in the polar front jet stream

4. leading to record-low sea ice coverage

5. the strength of each cold area

6. by weather systems farther south

7. and as the region slips into greater and greater seasonal darkness

In the Arctic, the sea ice melt-off peaks in September A___________ and temperatures fall, sea ice begins to reform. In 2016, however, temperature conditions have been slow to follow this pattern. Instead, near-surface air temperatures in the Arctic have remained warmer than normal throughout Oclober and early November, В_______________ that lags behind the 1981—2010 average extent by almost 2 million square km (roughly 772,000 square miles) for the period.

Cold air at both the top and the bottom of the world is separated from warmer equatorward air C ___________an eastward-moving belt of strong stratospheric winds that separates warm tropical air from cold polar air in the midlatitudes. D______ , or polar vortex, varies with the season, but it is strongest during the winter season in each hemisphere, when the temperature contrast between the pole and the Equator is greatest. In the Northern Hemisphere this week, the presence of a very strong low- pressure system in the North Pacific Ocean has pushed the polar vortex off the Arctic Ocean and into Siberia. Above 80° North latitude, E__________________, some 20 °C (36 °F) above normal on November 15, while temperatures on November 15 over parts of Siberia sank to -40” (which are, coincidentally, equivalent measures on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales). The polar vortex is typically strong enough to hold its own against most incursions F_______________, but its strength relies on a steep temperature gradienfacross the polar front jet stream — the wall of air separating the polar vortex’s interior from the outside.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

How to succeed in distance learning

Distance learning has opened doors for many students, especially for those who cannot afford to pay for the high fees of full-time courses. Although on-line distance learning courses have many advantages over on-campus degree classes, many factors come into play in order for students to successfully complete distance-learning courses.

Firstly, one should think of the syllabus as the bible for your class. It should contain all of the class guidelines and rules, as well as what your instructor expects from you over the course of the semester. Make sure you read this document in its entirety and keep track of it all semester. Ask your instructor any questions you might have about the syllabus. Make sure you clearly understand what your responsibilities are as a student from the very beginning. Knowing what to expect from your course will help you to plan how to proceed in the course from day one. Therefore, it is important to figure this out early on.

A big part of being successful in a distance-learning course involves setting a schedule for yourself that you adhere to throughout the semester. You will not have a teacher reminding you every day about due dates and reading assignments, so you will need to stay on top of this yourself. Create a schedule with all of your due dates listed and when you want to start working on each project so that you can plan your time accordingly. It can be very easy to fall behind in a distance-learning course if you do not set a schedule for yourself.

Even though you may feel somewhat anonymous in an online classroom, as in the case of many on-line spaces, you are still required to behave as you would in any normal classroom setting. This means treating your professor and classmates with respect when you engage with them. Do not air your grievances about the class on-line or exhibit anger in any form in a class discussion post. Your instructor will see these comments and it may negatively impact your grade. Respond to your classmates’ posts with kindness and respect. You would want them to treat you the same way. Since distance learning doesn’t typically involve actual classrooms full of people engaged in conversations together, it’s important for you to participate in the on-line discussion posts instead. You will learn a lot from these conversations and you will probably be required to post a certain amount for credit in the course. Successful distance learners do more than just memorize and regurgitate information. They think critically about what they have learned and how they can apply it to the real world or how it might be useful in their job.

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12

How to become self-motivated for distance learning at the very beginning?

1) Get acquainted with the instructor.

2) Familiarize yourself with the training programme.

3) Study information intended to advise you on how the course should be done or what it should be.

4) Act correctly and make decisions on your own.

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13

What is essential about studying on-line?

1) Lack or impossibility of communication with the tutor.

2) Planning and arranging the exams.

3) Sharpening your strategic decision-making skills.

4) Setting a personal time-table.

14
14

What is the most difficult part of distance learning?

1) It is difficult to be combined with college courses.

2) Managing time diligently is challenging.

3) Great amount of work should be done without any consultation.

4) More than one course must be selected.

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15

Submitting your work on time does not depend on ...

1) computer literacy.

3) tutoring.

4) time arrangement.

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16

If a person studies on-line, he/she is expected to ...

1) abscond from his/her responsibilities.

2) know a lot about modem technology, especially computers.

4) put a printed date and time on the document.

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17

Contributing to the on-line classroom community, one should remember to ...

1) use proper on-line etiquette.

3) join on-line class discussions.

4) participate when you are supposed to.

18
18

How to achieve your goals through distance learning?

1) Use your knowledge for a practical purpose.

2) Set short-term goals.

3) Only take courses that you need in future.

4) Select the right distance learning school.

### Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные жирными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Перенесите полученный ответ в соответствующее поле справа. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19 — 25. Ответ пишите без пробелов и иных знаков.

19
19

BECOMEMedical experts around the globe are worried that more and more viruses and bacteria ___________ resistant to today’s medicine. They are afraid that in a few generations antibiotics may become useless.

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20

DISCOVERScientists already________bacteria that do not react if treated with antibiotics.

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21

EXPENSIVEAs a result medical treatment will become___________ as new drugs have to be developed.

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22

NOT WORKDoctors and other health experts criticize the fact that antibiotics are being used in a wrong way. They are often prescribed in cases in which they_________ . In some areas, especially densely populated areas in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh doctors have already run out of antibiotics.

23
23

LATEPrescribing wrong antibiotics or taking them for too short a time will not kill off bacteria. Some doctors prescribe antibiotics for the common flu, making it ineffective for _________illnesses.

24
24

FASTThe World Health Organization claims that many infectious deseases are becoming untreatable and cannot be controlled. Another problem is that farmers in the United States and Europe are adding antibiotics to feed cattle and other animals, in order to make them grow ______________and produce more meat.

25
25

SAVESince Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in the early 20th century antibiotics ________ hundreds of millions of lives.

Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные жирными буквам в конце строк 26—31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните соответствующее поле справа полученными словами. Каждое поле соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

26
26

THANKThe next time your brain refuses to recall a simple fact or name, be______________.

27
27

NECESSARYThat’s because according to professors Blake Richards and Paul Frankland, could be a sign that your brain is getting rid of___________ information so that it can operate more efficiently.

28
28

ABLEIt is only lately that scientists have begun paying attention to forgetting. That’s because like us all, scientists also assumed that our occasional ___________to recall facts was due to a failure mechanism in the brain.

29
29

DECIDEAdditionally, the team believes that retaining too much detail could prevent us from making good_________________.

30
30

DAYThe scientists say what the brain decides to forget is determined by our_____________life.

31
31

CLUTTERIn fact, the researcher encourages people to help their brains__________by exercising regularly. So the next time you are unable to recall a seemingly important fact, don’t be hard on yourself. Just chalk it down to your brain “spring cleaning” to make room for information that can contribute to making you smarter! Remember, even Albert Einstein was absent-minded!

Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32 — 38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32 — 38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.

Tutankhamun was a king of Egypt from about 1332 В. C. until his death around 1322 В. C. His 32________was unimportant. But interest in Tutankhamun began in 1922, when the British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered his tomb. It had not been opened since ancient times and still had most of its treasures. It is the only tomb of an ancient Egyptian king to be discovered almost completely 33___________.

Tutankhamun became king at about the age of 9. He probably got a lot of help from Ay, his vizier (minister of state) who also became his 34 _____. Historians believe Tutankhamun died at about the age of 18, but they are unsure how. X-rays show that he may have had a head 35 ________ from an accident. Some say that he was murdered.

Officially it is thought he died from an infection after breaking his leg. His tomb is in the Valley of the Kings in central Egypt.

Howard Carter searched for Tutankhamun’s tomb for nearly six years. He finally discovered that its entrance had been hidden by the 36 _________ from digging at the entrance of the nearby tomb of King Ramses VI. Tutankhamun’s four-room tomb contained more than 5,000 objects, including many beautifully 37 _____ and gold-covered items. A wonderful gold mask of Tutankhamun covered the head and shoulders of the royal mummy.

The ancient Egyptians believed in a life after death, which they called the afterlife. They put many personal things into the tomb with them so that they could use them in the afterlife. Among the things discovered in Tutankhamun’s grave were luxurious chests, thrones, beds, linens, clothing, necklaces, bracelets, rings, and earrings. Carter also found chariots, bows and arrows, swords, daggers, shields, ostrich feather fans, trumpets, statues of Tutankhamun and many Egyptian gods, figures of animals, models of ships, toys, games, and jars containing precious oils. Most of the items found in Tutankhamun’s tomb are now 38___________in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

32
32

reign

sovereignty

supremacy

regime

33
33

undamaged

whole

unbroken

unimpaired

34
34

descendant

heir

inheritor

successor

35
35

trauma

hurt

injury

harm

36
36

destruction

waste

debris

trash

37
37

carved

engraved

cut

shaped

38
38

displayed

revealed

shown

### Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39, 40 используйте Бланк ответов № 2. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в Бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. При заполнении Бланка ответов № 2 вы указываете сначала номер задания 39, 40, а потом пишете свой ответ.

39
There are so many things that make a good friend. A true friend wants to see you do your best and they ’ll stop at nothing to help you get there. There are some things only a true friend understands. Have you made friends at your new school? Do you have any interests in common and what are they? What do you value in a friend most of all?
As for me, I’m going to write an article about the latest fashion trends.

Write a letter to Jennifer. In your letter:
— ask 3 questions about the article she is going to write.
Слов: 0 Минимум: 100
Ответ
40
40.1. In future robots will replace pets as people’s companions
40.2. Some students believe that homework should be optional
Слов: 0
Ответ
Лариса Николаевна
Пономаренко

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Кандидат филологических наук (2001). Доцент (2002)

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### Раздел 5. Говорение

Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.

41

After the next big rain storm, put your boots on and go outside. Look at the water dripping from your roof. Watch it gush out of the drainpipes. You can see water flowing down your street too. Water is always flowing. It trickles in the brook near your house. Sometimes you see water rushing along in a stream or in a big river. Water always flows downhill. It flows from high places to low places, just the way you and your skateboard move down a hill. Sometimes water collects in a low spot in the land — a puddle, a pond, or a lake. The water’s downhill journey may end there.

Most of the time, though, the water will find a way to keep flowing downhill. Because water flows downhill, it will keep flowing until it can’t go any lower. The lowest parts of the earth are the oceans. Water will keep flowing until it reaches an ocean. Where does the water start? Where does the water in a brook or a stream or a river come from? The water comes from rain. And it comes from melting snow. The water from rain and melting snow runs over the ground. Some of it soaks into the ground, and some water is soaked up by trees and other plants. But a lot of the water keeps travelling over the ground, flowing downhill.

Показать ответ
42

You are cosidering choosing a health programme for your cousin and you are calling to find out more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:

1) topics for discussion

2) how long

3) if one should come alone or with a partner

4) the name of lecturer

5) shool location

You have 20 seconds to ask each questions.

Показать ответ
43

These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.

You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:

— where and when the photo was taken

— what/who is in the photo

— what is happening

— why you keep the photo in your album

— why you decided to show the picture to your friend

You have to talk continuously, starting with: “I’ve chosen photo number …”

Показать ответ
44

Study the two photographs.

In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:

— give a brief description of the photos (action, location)

— say what the pictures have in common

— say in what way the pictures are different

— say which of the churches presented in the pictures you’d like more

— explain why

You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12—15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.

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